Ghosh (2008), in his study, however, argues that it is not the Protestant ethic that contributed to the capitalist growth, but the fact is that a high percentage of Protestants were forced to leave catholic nations. Furthermore, in the early years, the protestant opposed the concept of capitalism, for example, Calvin and Luther (Tilley, 2007). For instance, Calvin condemned all unlawful gains that are obtained the expense of the neighbor in addition to wealth amassing.
There are two major theological flaws in the reasoning of Weber. One of them is that Calvinism did not provide divine authorization to earthly toil. First, there is no crisis provided with the proof of the Westminster faith confession. In Calvinism and Christianity, work is not in any way related to mundane activities. According to Mackinnon, Weber fails to understand clearly what Calvinists mean by the term “calling” (Ghosh, 2008). Drawing from Westminster confession as the major source, Mackinnon points out what the term “calling” as understood by the Calvinists: there is an earthly and heavenly calling. The earthly calling is majorly disqualified from contributing to the human beings deliverance. Notwithstanding, it is essential for the devout to ensure that their mundane calling do not impede the prosecution of the best of the callings: the heavenly calling. Therefore, the believers are demanded to choose that calling or employment that they might be most serviceable to god. They are further advised not to choose what will make them honorable on earth, but what will enable them to escape sin (Ghosh, 2008).
How social class shape or define religious affiliation
Factors at play between class and religious affiliations are not concrete in nature. Despite particular thought process, which are related to class influence religious beliefs, other factors such as economic change, mobility and time, lead to the association of the two elements. The mentioned often contributes to a shift in the practices or beliefs of persons (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).
Karl Marx, who is an economist and philosopher, perceived religion as obstructive to the existing realities of economic exploitation thus deterring persons from seeking assistance in their situations. According to McCloud, (2007) people that belong to a lower class are more likely to find or be attracted to religious affiliation and in particular those that adhere to strict doctrinal interpretations. On the other hand, the upper and middle-class members are mainly attracted to bureaucratic religious affiliations. Therefore, it is evident that the lower class in the society might enjoy less room compared to those individuals in the upper or middle classes to seek solutions for their economic situations out of religion. Furthermore, the religious concept explains that individuals are more likely to be attracted to religious beliefs that reflect their status in life. For example, wealthy people in the society are likely to be affiliated to belief that justify their economic situations, while the lower classes and inclined to beliefs that can uplift their economic status (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).
Consequently, the extended social circle which is drawn from church membership may assist individuals who have the determination to improve their lives. According to the theodicy idea, the participation and affiliation that a person claims are likely to change as an individual progresses or becomes more favorable. For example, in 1980s, most liberal denominations featured middle class; however, there was a decrease in the membership of the well-educated middle class as persons embraced individual religious practices. The mentioned hinted that the observed trend was due to social classes. Furthermore, church attendance is associated with religious views and in particular of the new circle. For example, individuals who regard themselves as Baptists are likely to go to churches that appeal more to the upper class as the Presbyterian Church. Additionally, individuals who maintain their existing religious affiliation are likely to shy away from the practices that are not part of their new class structure (McCloud, 2007).
Historically, the Protestants and Episcopalians in particular dominated the upper class. Additionally, the mentioned groups were more likely to attain a university degree from top colleges and universities. Elite universities across the world are now experiencing a high percentage of the evangelical student population. Furthermore, degree holders now take evangelism as a profession compared to the past and this has improved their economic condition. For instance, members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God tend to exhibit a higher level of education and greater economic success compared to the public (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).
Legal and Historical Factors that make American Religious Pluralism Distinctive
There are many immigrants in America, and each came with its religion. For example, there is Hinduism, Islamism and Christianity among other world religions. Nonetheless, it is evident that U.S religion follows a cultural reality that is distinct from the existing evangelical that aim at Christianizing America as a whole. One of the historical factors that contributed to the distinctiveness of the American religions is the faith of the European colonies (Tilley, 2007).
Another factor is the way the Catholics, the Jew, and protestant celebrated the U.S culture. Furthermore, a comfortable religious pluralism ensured a judicious balance of group identity as well as membership while at the same time fighting for civic order in the public sphere (Tilley, 2007).
The breakdown of the colonial churches also contributed to the pluralism of the American religions. For example, the first amendment in the American constitution barred the federal creation of religions. This made others break away from their religions and join or create others. Furthermore, the colonial community was incapable of maintaining the established churches thus contributing to the emergence of religious pluralism in America. Influx of new immigrants into America contributed to the destabilization of proper management or control of institutional denominational life as the immigrant had their unique religious practices (Tilley, 2007).
The legal framework in America separated the state from the church. Despite the mentioned, Protestant hegemony persisted and was only contested during the 20th century. The first amendment in the separation of the church from the state, indicates that congress is not responsible for making any law with respect to the establishment of a religion or should not prohibit the free exercise of the religions. This made various religions establish themselves freely within the United States (Tilley, 2007).
In conclusion, for several years, the Supreme Court, as well as the federal courts have interpreted the First Amendment in different ways. The constitution gave the state the right to decide over religious matters. Therefore, it is evident that the United States constitutions have contributed to religious diversity in America.
Complexity in profiling
Hall (168), it is difficult and complex to define the construct of both race and ethnicity in the United States. This is because there have been lack of consistency in the definition of the two terms an aspect that makes it challenging to understanding their meaning. Furthermore, in particular, the concept of race has not only been misunderstood but also contested. Some meanings are derived from the social dimensions while others from the biological aspects. From a biological perspective race is derived from the individual’s character qualities, gene pools, and physical features. Using the aforementioned features as differentiating characteristics, Europeans grouped persons hierarchically by moral quality and physical ability. Nonetheless, beyond the mentioned characteristics, there are more about similarities than differences between the racial or ethnic groups as well as more differences than similarities between them. Furthermore, in the United States, there is a strong bond between racism and language. The primary group in most cases tends to discriminate against minority an aspect that is a reflection of existing hatred towards the Hispanic Americans by the majority groups in the United States, i.e., the white Americans.
Factors that have caused the discrimination
Hispanics are regarded a single minority group in the United States and is a product of the Spanish. In most cases, the Spanish environment dominates the territories, and this provides an explanation for the existing discrimination against them by the Americans. The Americans are afraid that there is the likelihood of the minor communities growing in economic, power and politics an aspect that is highly regarded as a threat to the nation’s growth. Various factors that have led contributed to the discrimination of the Spanish in the United States, for example, residence legality, media presentations and linguistic point of view. As a result of the mentioned, this small community experiences different forms of discrimination such as hatred and oppression, lack of quality health care, lack of proper housing and health care insurance (Shultz, 134).
In the United States, about 42 million residents who legally migrated to the nations are of Latin origin and approximately 39% of this population is born as foreigners and not natives. Therefore, it is believed that nearly 11 million people migrated illegally and 8.7 million of this group are thought to be of Hispanic origin (Fernández-Armesto, 8). The mentioned is a clear indication that about 85% of Hispanic migrants have obtained their US residency legally because they were born in the United States (Fernández-Armesto, 10). Therefore, the Hispanic group in the United States should not be discriminated against and should fight for their residency rights. According to Shultz (111), the politicians in the US are at the forefront of calling the immigrants illegal aliens. Studies have proven that Hispanic employees face discrimination in their workplaces, and this is evident in both private and public sectors. Despite their dedication and hard work, no appreciation or credit is accorded to them, for instance; they are not given an opportunity in the decision-making process, no wage raise and lack of favorable working conditions.
Gender discrimination in employment
Furthermore, discrimination of women of Hispanic origin is high in the United States compared to that of their male counterparts, particularly in the labor and job sector. For example, female Hispanics earn less compared to their male colleagues in similar position or job group. It is also evident that the wages of Spanish women are less compared to that of the white women, men, and Hispanic/Spanish men in a similar position. According to a study conducted in 1998, Hispanic males averagely earn $11.75 per hour while their women counterparts earn an average of $9.40 despite doing similar work (Fernández-Armesto, 18). The difference in wages was claimed to be based on work experience, education level, language, occupation type and finally discrimination against women.
Consequently, despite their low earning, the living standards of the Spanish immigrants cannot be justified based on their income. The poor housing conditions in the United States have made the community experience housing discrimination. The houses remain expensive, but there is minimal maintenance, an aspect that has made the tenants cope with rats and leaking roofs. In some instances, landlords refuse to refund the security deposit when Hispanic tenant moves out (Shultz, 146).