ESSAYS



Project 1 





Religious Studies
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Religious Studies
Weber's Protestant Ethic Thesis
            According to Weber, religious groups for Calvinist took a critical role in establishing the capitalist spirit. He first observed the existing correlation between business and Protestants, and therefore, explored the concept of religion as a potential contributor to the modern economic conditions. According to him, the modern spirit of capitalism perceives profit (Collins, 1999). However, this proposition is not right. Weber’s objective is, therefore, to understand the source of the capitalist spirit. He uses the Protestantism for the answer. Protestantism provides worldly calling concept and offers worldly activity of various religious characters. Despite this being important, it cannot provide sufficient information on the need to pursue profit.
Calvanism, which is a branch of Protestantism, fails to provide the much-needed explanation. Calvinists believe that God has already determined who is damned and who is saved (Collins, 1999). As Calvanism continued to be established, a psychological need emerged whether individuals were saved, and Calvinist examined the worldly indication for the answer. Therefore, they valued material success and profit as signs of favor from God. Additionally, other religious groups such as Methodists, pietisms, and Baptists too developed the same attitude, but to a lesser degree (Collins, 1999). According to Weber, the new attitude interfered with the existing traditional economic system, thus leading to modern capitalism. Nonetheless, it is evident that once capitalism got established, the Protestant values became less significant. Therefore, the society is practicing capitalism because it is of significance to the modern economic activities (Collins, 1999).
            Ghosh (2008), in his study, however, argues that it is not the Protestant ethic that contributed to the capitalist growth, but the fact is that a high percentage of Protestants were forced to leave catholic nations. Furthermore, in the early years, the protestant opposed the concept of capitalism, for example, Calvin and Luther (Tilley, 2007). For instance, Calvin condemned all unlawful gains that are obtained the expense of the neighbor in addition to wealth amassing.
            There are two major theological flaws in the reasoning of Weber. One of them is that Calvinism did not provide divine authorization to earthly toil. First, there is no crisis provided with the proof of the Westminster faith confession. In Calvinism and Christianity, work is not in any way related to mundane activities. According to Mackinnon, Weber fails to understand clearly what Calvinists mean by the term “calling” (Ghosh, 2008). Drawing from Westminster confession as the major source, Mackinnon points out what the term “calling” as understood by the Calvinists: there is an earthly and heavenly calling. The earthly calling is majorly disqualified from contributing to the human beings deliverance. Notwithstanding, it is essential for the devout to ensure that their mundane calling do not impede the prosecution of the best of the callings: the heavenly calling. Therefore, the believers are demanded to choose that calling or employment that they might be most serviceable to god. They are further advised not to choose what will make them honorable on earth, but what will enable them to escape sin (Ghosh, 2008).

                                         How social class shape or define religious affiliation
            Factors at play between class and religious affiliations are not concrete in nature. Despite particular thought process, which are related to class influence religious beliefs, other factors such as economic change, mobility and time, lead to the association of the two elements. The mentioned often contributes to a shift in the practices or beliefs of persons (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).
           
Even though the existing relationship between religion and class has never changed, there are certain trends in class structure and religious affiliations. For instance, Catholics who belonged to a lower socioeconomic class before World War II started to rise into the middle class after the World War II. Furthermore, the level of the Jews also changed as it also rose, therefore making their upper-class status more established (McCloud, 2007).
            Karl Marx, who is an economist and philosopher, perceived religion as obstructive to the existing realities of economic exploitation thus deterring persons from seeking assistance in their situations. According to McCloud, (2007) people that belong to a lower class are more likely to find or be attracted to religious affiliation and in particular those that adhere to strict doctrinal interpretations. On the other hand, the upper and middle-class members are mainly attracted to bureaucratic religious affiliations. Therefore, it is evident that the lower class in the society might enjoy less room compared to those individuals in the upper or middle classes to seek solutions for their economic situations out of religion. Furthermore, the religious concept explains that individuals are more likely to be attracted to religious beliefs that reflect their status in life. For example, wealthy people in the society are likely to be affiliated to belief that justify their economic situations, while the lower classes and inclined to beliefs that can uplift their economic status (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).
            Consequently, the extended social circle which is drawn from church membership may assist individuals who have the determination to improve their lives. According to the theodicy idea, the participation and affiliation that a person claims are likely to change as an individual progresses or becomes more favorable. For example, in 1980s, most liberal denominations featured middle class; however, there was a decrease in the membership of the well-educated middle class as persons embraced individual religious practices. The mentioned hinted that the observed trend was due to social classes. Furthermore, church attendance is associated with religious views and in particular of the new circle. For example, individuals who regard themselves as Baptists are likely to go to churches that appeal more to the upper class as the Presbyterian Church. Additionally, individuals who maintain their existing religious affiliation are likely to shy away from the practices that are not part of their new class structure (McCloud, 2007).
            Historically, the Protestants and Episcopalians in particular dominated the upper class. Additionally, the mentioned groups were more likely to attain a university degree from top colleges and universities. Elite universities across the world are now experiencing a high percentage of the evangelical student population. Furthermore, degree holders now take evangelism as a profession compared to the past and this has improved their economic condition. For instance, members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God tend to exhibit a higher level of education and greater economic success compared to the public (McCloud & Mirola, 2009).

          Legal and Historical Factors that make American Religious Pluralism Distinctive
            There are many immigrants in America, and each came with its religion. For example, there is Hinduism, Islamism and Christianity among other world religions. Nonetheless, it is evident that U.S religion follows a cultural reality that is distinct from the existing evangelical that aim at Christianizing America as a whole. One of the historical factors that contributed to the distinctiveness of the American religions is the faith of the European colonies (Tilley, 2007).
            Another factor is the way the Catholics, the Jew, and protestant celebrated the U.S culture. Furthermore, a comfortable religious pluralism ensured a judicious balance of group identity as well as membership while at the same time fighting for civic order in the public sphere (Tilley, 2007).
            The breakdown of the colonial churches also contributed to the pluralism of the American religions. For example, the first amendment in the American constitution barred the federal creation of religions. This made others break away from their religions and join or create others. Furthermore, the colonial community was incapable of maintaining the established churches thus contributing to the emergence of religious pluralism in America. Influx of new immigrants into America contributed to the destabilization of proper management or control of institutional denominational life as the immigrant had their unique religious practices (Tilley, 2007).
            The legal framework in America separated the state from the church. Despite the mentioned, Protestant hegemony persisted and was only contested during the 20th century. The first amendment in the separation of the church from the state, indicates that congress is not responsible for making any law with respect to the establishment of a religion or should not prohibit the free exercise of the religions. This made various religions establish themselves freely within the United States (Tilley, 2007).
            In conclusion, for several years, the Supreme Court, as well as the federal courts have interpreted the First Amendment in different ways. The constitution gave the state the right to decide over religious matters. Therefore, it is evident that the United States constitutions have contributed to religious diversity in America.


References  
Collins, R. (1999). Weberian sociological theory. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire: Cambridge                  University Press.
Ghosh, P. (2008). A historian reads Max Weber: Essays on the Protestant ethic. Wiesbaden:            Harrassowitz Verlag.
McCloud, S. (2007). Divine hierarchies: Class in American religion and religious studies. Chapel    Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
McCloud, S., & Mirola, W. A. (2009). Religion and class in America: Culture, history, and           politics. Leiden: Brill.

Tilley, T. W. (2007). Religious diversity and the American experience: A theological approach.      New York: Continuum.     







Project 2



Assessing the Implications of Technological Effects on the Aviation Industry in the 21st Century
By
New Technological Effects on the Aviation Industry
A Research Project proposal
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Abstract
Air transport is one of the most substantial mechanisms in the world’s transportation system. Not only is the department involved in the major transportation of long distance travels but it also has economic impacts on both the global and national economies. Moreover, due to the very nature of aviation infrastructure, for instance, the presence of airports as well as the current technological flights that is jet engines, which normally consume fuel and end up emitting air pollutants. Air transportation plays a vital role in ensuring that efforts to improve environmental quality as well as promoting sustainable development. Major components of air transport include; airports, air traffic control systems, air crafts and airlines. When one of these or all the systems are changed, there will be significant consequences for the future of the aviation industry. For instance, significant congestion is occurring at most of the world’s largest airports. How would additional capacity be put in provision in the environment where a lot of infrastructure investment is constrained? In the 21st century, technological advances are preparing the way for a major shift in the control of air traffic from the procedure of ground-based aircraft guidance to use of satellite navigations that will allow aircraft and other bodies to use their routes. As it has been noted, one of the major changes over the 80 years’ period has been the increasing size of the aircraft as well as its weight.





Assessing the Implications of Technological Effects on the Aviation Industry in the 21st Century
Keywords; flights, transport system, innovations, aviation

Statement of the project
            The paper will assess the effects of technology in the aviation industry in the 21st century. This information will be useful to most nations and the whole globe as a whole. History tells us that the progress and the development of air transportation actually defines a road map of the civilization as well as mankind. This is a Bachelor’s degree individual research proposal writing.

Introduction
            Air transportation is normally perceived as a very complex system. This is because not only does the system perceive focus on various physical and operations components that requires to work together for the effectiveness of the system, but also puts emphasis on the important influences air transportation plays in economic development, environmental quality, and national security. Since the 18th century, when the very first balloons astonished Europe, air carriage has figured greatly with the help of imaginations from inventors, military strategists as well as engineers. It was not until the start of the 20th - 21st century that heavier machines started showing capability compared to later years of traveling for long distances. It has been noted that the original number of airline passenger trips improved from 9 million (1945) to over 1.6 billion today (Soeter & Boer, 2000). This shows that many traveling publics have adopted air travel for long distances in the recent years. Air transportation today has become a crucial element in the economy of many countries in the world, and it keeps growing day by day. For instance, revenue passenger-kilometers are anticipated to at least 5% per year up to 2020; this has been included even in the presence of the repercussions of the terrorist attack of 2001 in the US. Air transport is a primary means of transport of international trips, many nations all over the region take the means of transport as a significant factor when it comes to economic success. For instance, when it comes to tourism, that is one of the world’s largest industries normally estimated to add at least $3.6 trillion of the world economy, would significantly be interrupted in case there are disruptions in the air transportation systems (Michael, 2005, p. 221). Moreover, other industries for example electronics as well as pharmaceuticals depend comprehensively on air transportation when it comes to the delivery of goods and services. One of the best ways of measuring the importance of the aviation industry to a national economic is through the impact to Gross domestic product (GDP).
Assessing the implications of technological effects on the aviation industry in the 21st century will help us know what has been achieved and what is expected in the near future in the industry. This is to ensure that no illegal deals take place in these areas since it can cause a lot of damages to various systems.

Critical Thinking
Critical thinking refers to the propensity and skills to engage in a particular activity with reflective skepticism (McPeck, 1981, p. 8). Threat and error management in the 21st century is a major process when it comes to aviation. TEM involves detecting, avoiding as well as avoiding or else trapping threat and errors that arise and challenge safe operations. In the modern world, procedures have been taken to ensure that aviation people are critically armed to ensure that they can combat future threats. This has been done by helping incorporation of situational awareness as well as the accurate perception of various factors within the four fundamental risk elements that include; pilot, aircraft, environment, and operation. Decision making is a system approach in ensuring that pilots consistently determine the best course of action in response to any given set of circumstances. In particular, (Bailin et al. 1999 p.18) argue that when you have domain specific knowledge, it is indispensable to critical thinking since the kinds of explanations, evaluations as well as evidence vary normally from one domain to another.

Quantitative reasoning
According to Creswell (2003, p.14) quantitative reasoning is the application of basic skills to help in analyzing and interpretation of real world quantitative information, in this context it helps in drawing conclusions relevant to how aviation has been able to transform the society through application of the concept. Digital systems appeared in the aircraft and have been developing steadily in complexity. To ensure stability in the aviation industry, there was full authoritative fly-by-wire systems that were developed in conjunction with the general dynamic. These systems have so far replaced the aerodynamic stabilizers. This has over the years’ period made airplanes to have relaxed static ability as well as have maneuverable as well as an artificial feel. There is also the presence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become into effective use today. Moreover, civil aviation have increased to expand, the airlines and engines have grown larger and even more fuel efficient, while the digital systems are progressively taking part of flight control as well as other avionics. The modern jet airlines come with glass cockpits that have a full-authority digital engine as well computerized systems that are fly-by-wire. In the 21st era computers have become more sophisticated, through this, they have been able to take over the routine tasks of air traffic controls (Creswell 2003, p.14). They have also been able to monitor flight paths at any given time thus allows for decision making and follow-up procedures.


Information Literacy
Information literacy refers to the crucial skills that are required and are always recognized when information is needed. It helps in location and accurately evaluating the effective use as well as clearly communicate information in various formats. There is the technological development that has impacted on air transportation system in the 21st century than the implementation of electronic designs for key regulatory as well as tracking of documents. The gradual switch to the digital information literacy method has greatly contributed to airline being fast in the documentation procedures as well as being more flexible and transparent, (Michael 2005, p.220). The application have also improved and advanced conversion processes of mountains of data points along the airlines, they can now collect in actionable intelligence in the 21st century. Having predictive analytics helps airlines to ensure that informed and strategic decisions are made. Moreover, having the modern analytics tools, it's far more flexible and powerful than the predecessors when analyzing information. For instance, some of the modern analytical tools can handle data sets that is unstructured or even data sets with a lot of structures.

Communication
            The act of measuring how communication goals will be achieved is normally one of the topics that many researchers in the field of communicative competence try to address, having the right communication behaviors may successfully help in accomplishing interpersonal goals in a department this is according to (Wiemann, 1980, p.185). Of the airline's trends, big data ultimately prove to be quite disruptive. Many industries have seen their business models altered radically both positively and negatively, by events of big data. The aviation industry that has always been dependent on data for communication is already finding better applications in the recent world that have greatly transformed the business. Big data technologies have been applied to elements in the airline industry as diverse at dynamic pricing, and helped in business development as well as customer loyalty programs since the procedures of communicating are becoming more and more enhanced. With more information at their fingertips, managers and directors in various airlines can make better data-driven decisions as well as respond fast to changing conditions in real time.

 Scientific Literacy
            To understand the concept of scientific literacy, it is important, to begin with an understanding of the real concept of literacy itself. The basic understanding of literacy is being able to read and write. In aviation, there are a couple of evidence in scientific literacy. For instance, aerospace science and technology has published progress in scientific quality. In many countries, airports are normally classified as either civilian or for military purposes. Civilian airports are those that are normally for public use they are further classified into air carriers (normally for passenger airlines) and general aviation (these are smaller airports handling the privately operated aircraft) a lot of great projects have been done across the world and in many countries there are at least 50 known airports that carry millions of passengers every day (Creswell 2003, p.14). At the airports for instance in the U.S., airside operations begin from where screening takes

 Culture literacy
There are major themes when construction of culture is discussed in the aviation industry. First, it stands to reason that culture normally affects the behavior of the pilots as well as others in the system since it affects so much of what people especially other people do. The culture varies by region and normally affects behavior, moreover, it provides a plausible element of an explanation. Before addressing the role of culture in flight deck procedures in the 21st century, it is important to address a common, misconception. There are researchers who have reported correlations between the measures of national culture and incidents rates as reported by (Soeter & Boer, 2000). In the modern world, an airplane or fleets of airplanes is just part of the commercial aviation system. Having safe operations require vast, expensive, network of material as well as services.

Lifelong Personal Growth
When education and training are effectively utilized in the aviation industry, there is an improvement of the aviation people regarding judgment and skills applied. This help in reducing human errors that end up causing accidents. In the 21st century, aeronautical science covers the application of science to aviation as one of the ways of improving advancement in technology. The aviation personnel are taken through seminars, conferences as well partaking of lectures, this is to help them get enriched with skills needed to enrich their quality of life as well as activities that will enhance and promote lifelong learning (Liou, Yen & Tzou, 2008, p. 24).

Aviation/Aerospace/Aeronautical Science
From the time the first aircraft was invented, engineers have been working various ways to make the industry more effective and efficient. In fact, when one compares the rest of the industries, aviation is seen to be the most technologically advanced since there are various innovation centers in the whole world. The space technology as well has made great advancements due to the rapid progress in information and communication technology. Due to the many military threats, new strategies have been undertaken. These have included incorporation of higher and faster technologies. There have been many designs the latest being a spaceship by Burt Rytan that flew to over 360,000 feet and launched safely (Scott & Voges, 2007, p.28).

Aviation Legislation and Law
The aviation laws normally govern the operations of aircraft as well as ensure that they are maintained accordingly. Both the federal and the state government have emphasized on enactment of the statutes and created administrative agencies to ensure that air traffic is regulated accordingly in the 21st century (Michael 2005, p.220). States have been prohibited from the act of changing laws and regulating the rates, routes or services of any carrier as it has been authorized by the federal aviation act to ensure provision of interstate air transportation
Aviation Safety
            Safety is widely believed to play a critical role in the international aviation system. There are attempts that have tried to link widely differing accidents rates in various regions of the world to differences in culture (Boeing, 1993, p. 49; Soeters & Boer, 2000). However, recent studies have shown that, no regional and national culture can have effect flight safety. However, other factors such as aviation infrastructure, tends to be different from one region to another and can have a direct effect on the aviation safety. According to Liou Yen and Tzeng, (2008, p. 22) safety strategy and policy in aviation plays the most important role when it is related to safety performance in the industry.

Aviation Management and Operations
Aviation management encompasses various and diverse components of leadership for instance honesty and integrity, outstanding self-awareness, team leader, vision, courage, control as well as having effective communication skills this is according to (Scott & Voges, 2007, p.28). By far the greatest expansion of airports is normally the space occupied by the runways. In many places, the air carrier airports have multiple runways in various runways layouts. In the modern world, there are those airports that have numerous intersecting runways, for instance, Chicago’s O’Hare International airports; others have all parallel runways as it is depicted in Los Angeles International Airport. Most of the times these features are often dictated by the direction of the wind. There are other that will be built depending on physical constraints for instance away from mountains. The aviation industry of the 21st century has considered building runways that can accommodate a fully loaded Boeing 747-400 that weighs at least 875,000 pounds (Boeing, 1993, p. 47). This calls for having sufficient runways in the form of length and enough space for land and take off.

Conclusion
            These emerging technologies among others are making the aviation industry to deliver the traditional passenger cargo service more efficiently with greater success than before. Moreover, the procedures are also opening allocations for more people thus creating job opportunities thus improving customer experience as well as generate new revenue streams.




Bibliography
Boeing.1993. Crew Factor Accidents: Regional Perspective. Proceedings of the 22nd Technical Conference of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) on Human Factors in Aviation (pp.45-61). Montreal, Canada: IATA.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Liou, J. J. H., Yen, L., & Tzeng, G. H. 2008. Building an effective safety management system for airlines. Journal of Air Transport Management, 14(1), 20-26.
McPeck, J. E. 1981. Critical thinking and subject specificity: A reply to Ennis. Aviation Educational Journal, 19(4), 9–12
Michael R. H, 2005. “An intensive information literacy model”, Reference Services Review, 33 (2),.219 – 227
Scott W., D, & Voges, J. K., 2007. The Role and Function of Management in Aviation Management Programs, Collegiate Aviation Review, 25 (2) 25-32.
Soeters, J. L., & Boer, P. C. 2000. Culture and Flight Safety in Military Aviation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(2), 111 - 133.
Wiemann, J. M., & Backlund, P. 1980. Current theory and research in communicative competence. Review of Educational Research, 50(1), 185.





Project 3


Student’s Name
Professor’s Name  
Subject Details
Due Date




Research-Race and Ethnicity
Introduction
            The Hispanic population in the United States is perceived to be non-monolithic in nature. Hispanic Americans are of different national background and belong to different ethnicity. A standard feature of all persons of Hispanic origin in America is that they came from Spanish-speaking nations and the majority of them are fluent in the Spanish language. Hispanic Americans are Roman Catholic believers. This is in contrast with of most of the United States population that belongs to a single Protestant church. Racial and ethnic identities are important parts of the whole framework of collective and individual identity. For some particularly visible as well as legally defined minority population in the America, racial/ethnic identity has different manifestations (Fernández-Armesto, 7). Conflicting cultural and social influences triggers the manifestations. First, conscious immersion in cultural values and traditions through familial, religious, neighborhood in addition to educational communities not only instill a positive sense of the ethnic confidence but also identity. Additionally, and in contrary, persons often need to filter ethnic identity through negative media messages and treatment received from the society because of their race or ethnicity. According to the messages, persons with minority status exhibit a different ethnic make-up and one that comes out as less than the one that is desirable within the mainstream society. Others and in particular white Americans in most cases expresses ethnic or racial identity in unconscious ways through their beliefs, values, assumptions, and behaviors. To them, ethnicity in most instances is unconscious and invisible because the existing societal norms have been constructed around their cultural, ethnic and racial frameworks as well as priorities and then referred to as the standard American culture (Hall, 162).

             My family Immigration process to U.S
My family’s immigration to the U.S process can be attributed to our grandmother. To be precise, was responsible for our residency in the U.S.A. After migrating to the country alone, she passed all the verification ad legal processes and brought in her extended family.  For this reason,  all her great-grandchildren are legal U.S. citizens.
Complexity in profiling
            Hall (168), it is difficult and complex to define the construct of both race and ethnicity in the United States. This is because there have been lack of consistency in the definition of the two terms an aspect that makes it challenging to understanding their meaning. Furthermore, in particular, the concept of race has not only been misunderstood but also contested. Some meanings are derived from the social dimensions while others from the biological aspects. From a biological perspective race is derived from the individual’s character qualities, gene pools, and physical features. Using the aforementioned features as differentiating characteristics, Europeans grouped persons hierarchically by moral quality and physical ability. Nonetheless, beyond the mentioned characteristics, there are more about similarities than differences between the racial or ethnic groups as well as more differences than similarities between them. Furthermore, in the United States, there is a strong bond between racism and language. The primary group in most cases tends to discriminate against minority an aspect that is a reflection of existing hatred towards the Hispanic Americans by the majority groups in the United States, i.e., the white Americans.
Factors that have caused the discrimination
            Hispanics are regarded a single minority group in the United States and is a product of the Spanish. In most cases, the Spanish environment dominates the territories, and this provides an explanation for the existing discrimination against them by the Americans. The Americans are afraid that there is the likelihood of the minor communities growing in economic, power and politics an aspect that is highly regarded as a threat to the nation’s growth. Various factors that have led contributed to the discrimination of the Spanish in the United States, for example, residence legality, media presentations and linguistic point of view. As a result of the mentioned, this small community experiences different forms of discrimination such as hatred and oppression, lack of quality health care, lack of proper housing and health care insurance (Shultz, 134).
Employment
            In the United States, about 42 million residents who legally migrated to the nations are of Latin origin and approximately 39% of this population is born as foreigners and not natives. Therefore, it is believed that nearly 11 million people migrated illegally and 8.7 million of this group are thought to be of Hispanic origin (Fernández-Armesto, 8). The mentioned is a clear indication that about 85% of Hispanic migrants have obtained their US residency legally because they were born in the United States (Fernández-Armesto, 10). Therefore, the Hispanic group in the United States should not be discriminated against and should fight for their residency rights. According to Shultz (111), the politicians in the US are at the forefront of calling the immigrants illegal aliens. Studies have proven that Hispanic employees face discrimination in their workplaces, and this is evident in both private and public sectors. Despite their dedication and hard work, no appreciation or credit is accorded to them, for instance; they are not given an opportunity in the decision-making process, no wage raise and lack of favorable working conditions.
Gender discrimination in employment
            Furthermore, discrimination of women of Hispanic origin is high in the United States compared to that of their male counterparts, particularly in the labor and job sector. For example, female Hispanics earn less compared to their male colleagues in similar position or job group. It is also evident that the wages of Spanish women are less compared to that of the white women, men, and Hispanic/Spanish men in a similar position. According to a study conducted in 1998, Hispanic males averagely earn $11.75 per hour while their women counterparts earn an average of $9.40 despite doing similar work (Fernández-Armesto, 18). The difference in wages was claimed to be based on work experience, education level, language, occupation type and finally discrimination against women.
Housing discrimination
            Consequently, despite their low earning, the living standards of the Spanish immigrants cannot be justified based on their income. The poor housing conditions in the United States have made the community experience housing discrimination. The houses remain expensive, but there is minimal maintenance, an aspect that has made the tenants cope with rats and leaking roofs. In some instances, landlords refuse to refund the security deposit when Hispanic tenant moves out (Shultz, 146).
Summary      
In conclusion, it is evident that Hispanics for a long time have been discriminated/ill-treated based on their race. The degree of discrimination against the Hispanic Americans is a serious issue that requires an immediate solution. From freedom of expression, job discrimination, housing, education rights in addition to other rights have been denied to Spanish Americans. Research has also proven that 20% of the Spanish Americans feel that they are discriminated against in employment (Fernández-Armesto, 19). Some claim that they have been physically or verbally abused while another feels that they are paid less and have minimal chances of career advancement compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Therefore, Spanish migrating to America should expect different kinds of discrimination. More importantly, they should ensure that they are legal immigrants in the United States.

References
Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States. , 2014. Print.
Hall, Ronald E. An Historical Analysis of Skin Color Discrimination in America: Victimism           Among Victim Group Populations. New York: Springer, 2010. Print.  

Shultz, Jeffery D. Encyclopedia of Minorities in Politics. Phoenix, Ariz: Oryx Press, 2000. Print.



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